配水

要旨

要旨

清潔で安全で、そして信頼性の高い飲料水を家庭や会社に配水することは、どの水道事業者にとっても明らかな最重要項目となります。しかしながら配水装置にかかる費用と比べると、漏水や洪水はそれ以上の費用を使用者に課しているのが現状です。

配水方法は、主に地形学や規制により決まります。そして、重力式(自然流下)・圧力式配水システムの組み合わせが、最良の結果を目指して使用されます。グルンドフォスは主・中継ポンプ場を含む全体的な配水・排水装置用のポンプや制御装置を供給することにより、最適な運転・管理にご協力いたします。

グルンドフォスは、効果的な圧力制御によって配水装置のロスを低減し、無駄なコストを削減します。これは配管破損の原因となる水ウォーターハンマーを減らすことなどによりにより実現されます。

グルンドフォスは、複数のポンプを末端圧一定で制御するソリューションをご提案します。一定の吐出圧を保ちつつ、必要な流量を正確に供給するように設計されています。また大きいポンプを使うことなく、複数のポンプが各々の最適ポイントで作動します。グルンドフォスの制御装置である"MPC"は、複数ポンプの圧力の制御、流量と回転数に応じた最高効率点での運転、そして運転状況・アラーム表示のできるモニターなど制御・監視機能の双方を有しております。グルンドフォスのコントロールMPCは、全てのタイプのポンプと連動が可能で、省エネや漏水によるロスを減らすことによりお客様の経済的な利益確保に貢献いたします。


配水システムを長く保持していくためには、ポンプが耐久性に優れ、コスト効果が高く、トラブルが少ないことが要求されます。グルンドフォスは長年、制御装置や監視装置についても経験を積み、またポンプ用モーターも製造してきました。これは様々な液体の種類や運転条件に対応し、最高効率でポンプを運転できるよう、モーター、制御機器なども含め総合的なポンプソリューションをご提案するためのものです。


グルンドフォスの高効率のモーターは、世界中のモーター効率規制の要件を満たし、それを越えている例もいくつかあります。インバータ付きモータもラインナップし、更に効率の良い運転も可能にしています。標準的なポンプを使用した装置のライフサイクルコストのうち平均85%がエネルギーコストです。高効率モーターへの切り替えにより、最大50%のライフサイクルコストの削減、環境への影響削減につながります。


制御装置や監視装置により、効率性と運転の安定性を向上できることがあります。グルンドフォスは、外付けインバータ(CUEシリーズ) や専用監視装置、そしてポンプ運転遠隔管理システム等もご提供しております。





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Demand Driven Distribution

Water companies continue to dedicate significant resources to resolve issues related to non-revenue water (NRW). NRW is water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer, thereby costing water companies’ money. The International Water Association (IWA) has developed a detailed methodology to assess the various components of NRW, identifying the following components: unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses such as water theft and metering inaccuracies, and real losses.

Grundfos is particularly well placed to reduce and control real losses caused by leakage from holes in the mains. Grundfos can help in two ways – by reducing considerably surplus pressure in the pipes system and by lessening the risk of water hammer which causes new holes. The solution in both these cases is the Grundfos Control MPC.

Important to reduce leakage losses

Reducing leakage and overflow requires initiatives such as increasing the speed of leakage detection, optimising asset management and not least by designing a pressure management strategy. Pressure management is now well recognised as being essential to effective leakage management.

Central to a typical strategy is to minimise the losses to existing leaks and reduce the risk of new leaks. Of the methods available for pressure management (pressure reduction, surge relief and level control), pressure reduction is the most common with several approaches available. Grundfos has developed systems to support pressure management systems, and these are integrated in our pumping solutions.

Surplus pressure and water hammer major culprits

The surplus system pressure that arises in low flow situations is a major culprit for increasing losses through existing leaks. The proportional pressure functionality built into the Grundfos Control MPC is a unique tool for eliminating this surplus. The controller monitors system conditions, detects the increase in system pressure and adapts the set point accordingly. For the consumer there is no change in tap pressure, but leakage is reduced significantly.

Best known in the Grundfos Hydro MPC booster using vertical multistage centrifugal pump (CR) pumps, the Grundfos Control MPC is also used with systems with other than CR pumps.

An important contributing factor behind new leaks is water hammer. Caused by sudden momentum changes in a pipe system, this phenomenon can be reduced or eliminated by lowering fluid velocities, gradual pump rampup/ramp-down or reducing pump size, for example. Software analysis packages exist today; these vary in complexity, dependent on the processes modelled.

One example is that the sudden momentum changes that cause water hammer can be avoided by a gradual ramp-up, likewise with ramping down. This is a standard pre-programmed function in the Grundfos Control MPC.

Control NRW and optimise the pumps system

Leakage and overflow can cost water companies much more than the water lost from the distribution system. Grundfos expertise is always available to safeguard customers’ pumps system against the destructive effects of water hammer and surplus pressure.

By analysing system conditions and consumption patterns, Grundfos specialists assess the options for each distribution network. Our recommendations are held up against the economic level of leakage and the resources available to maintain a viable pressure management strategy.

For example, a big pump has a big water hammer effect; this is a factor of the pump’s inertia. Smaller pumps reduce the risk of water hammer and involve lower capital investment and operating costs and will reduce energy consumption and leakage loss.

Proportional pressure control unique to Grundfos

Proportional pressure control automatically optimises energy consumption and minimises water loss and is a solution unique to Grundfos. In the Control MPC, proportional pressure control compensates for excessive system pressure by automatically adapting the set point to the actual flow. In situations with high low, the pressure loss in the pipe system is relatively high. If the pressure loss in the pipe system is 1 bar, the discharge pressure of the system must be set to 6 bar in order to deliver a system pressure of 5 bar.

In a low-flow situation, the pressure loss in the pipe system may only be 0.2 bar. This would increase system pressure to 5.8 bar if the set point is fixed to 6 bar. The surplus 0.8 bar represents excess energy consumption and a strain on the mains pipes.

To compensate for this excess system pressure, the proportional pressure function automatically reduces discharge pressure to 5.2 bar, yielding significant reductions in energy consumption and non-revenue water.

Downloads

 

Demand Driven Distribution

Demand Driven Distribution

Reliable and cost-effective water distribution.


Pump handbook

Pump Handbook

A guide to dimensioning and optimising reliable pumping systems.


DDD

Demand Driven Distribution case story

Grundfos Demand Driven Distribution provides substantial reductions in leakage losses and energy costs.


profile

Take a step back...

And see the bigger picture. Grundfos Water Utility profile brochure.


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